Archive for July, 2012
Maybe the internet will be able to keep working in Australia after all.
Austlii is only up to 20 June, at the time of posting.
Lid dip “Law Geek Down Under“
The Full Court (Keane CJ, Bennett and Yates JJ) has unanimously dismissed Apotex’ appeal from Jagot J findings that it had infringed Sanofi-Aventis’ patents and copyright. Bennett and Yates JJ delivered a joint opinion, Keane CJ his Honour’s own reasoned opinion.
Sanofi’s patent had just one claim:
A method of preventing or treating a skin disorder, wherein the skin disorder is psoriasis, which comprises administering to a recipient an effective amount of pharmaceutical composition containing as an active ingredient a compound of formula I or II … [i.e., leflunomide]
Manner of manufacture
Keane CJ recorded at  that Apotex did not press orally its argument that methods of medical treatment are not patentable in Australia. Both judgments, however, explicitly refused to re-open the question following Rescare and Bristol-Myers Squibb in light of long standing practice and Parliament’s lmitation of the exclusion from patentability in s 18(2) to humans and the biological processes for their generation.
Keane CJ, Bennett and Yates JJ would also have granted leave to Apotex to argue on appeal that “methods of medical treatment for a “second or later medical use” not limited by the purpose of the treatment are not patentable inventions.”
Whatever the merits of that ground “(a matter on which we express no view)”, however, Bennett and Yates JJ considered at  it could not succeed in this case as there was no disclosure on the face of the specification to found the Microcell argument as interpreted in Bristol-Myers Squibb. Keane CJ at  considered the ground as argued failed because, properly construed, the claim did not extend to any use of leflunomide that inevitably had some incidental beneficial effect on psoriasis.
The Court unanimously rejected Sanofi’s argument that the claim covered any administration of leflunomide which happened to (or also to) result in the treatment of psoriasis. In this context, their Honours were concerned about giving Sanofi a “monopoly” wider than its disclosure or the consideration for the grant of the patent.
This didn’t help Apotex, however.
First, Apotex’ product was approved for, and its product literature stated it was indicated for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis and active psoriatic arthritis. The product literature also stated “Apo-Leflunomide is not indicated for the treatment of psoriasis that is not associated with manifestations of arthritic disease.”
Use of leflunomide to treat rheumatoid arthritis itself would not infringe. However, those treating psoriatic arthritis knew that the patient would also have psoriasis or, if not treated, would develop psoriasis. Thus, the Full Court agreed with Jagot J that the plain meaning to those skilled in the art of the statement “Apo-Leflunomide is not indicated for the treatment of psoriasis that is not associated with manifestations of arthritic disease” was an instruction to use Apo-Leflunomide for the treatment of psoriasis in conjunction with the treatment or prevention of psoiratic arthritis.
Secondly, use for the purpose of treating, or preventing, psoriasis in conjunction with psoriatic arthritis would be an infringing use. Their Honours were not overwhelmed by the supposed terrors of determining the purpose for which leflunomide was prescribed, bearing in mind that it was a prescription drug. Bennett and Yates JJ saw this at  is simply a question of characterising the impugned conduct. Keane CJ questioned at  to  whether the proposition from Merrell Dow that infringement did not depend on the infringer’s state of mind was in fact “absolute” and noted that, in circumstances where a prescription only drug was being prescribed by medical practitioners, the purpose of administration should be reasonably ascertainable.
Accordingly, Apotex infringed on the basis of (at least) s 117(2)(c).
May be the subject of a later post.
Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd (No 2)  FCAFC 102
At present, sections 133 to 140 of the Patents Act provide for applications to be made to the Federal Court for a compulsory licence to work a patent where
(i) the applicant has tried for a reasonable period, but without success, to obtain from the patentee an authorisation to work the invention on reasonable terms and conditions;
>(ii) the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied;
(iii) the patentee has given no satisfactory reason for failing to exploit the patent; or
the patentee has contravened the anti-competitive provisions in Part IV of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.
- Assess whether the current Australian provisions can be invoked efficiently and effectively to deal with circumstances where reasonable requirements of the public are not being met or where the patentee engages in anti-competitive conduct. This includes, but is not limited to, consideration of concerns that gene patents may hinder access to affordable healthcare, including access to medical advice that relies on the identification and use of gene sequences related to human health and disease.
- Advise on the frequency, and impact, of the issue of compulsory licences in comparable markets and the common features in such compulsory licenses.
- Recommend any measures that may be required to efficiently and effectively exercise these safeguard provisions and invoke their use in a manner consistent with Australia’s international obligations, without limiting access to overseas technologies, technology transfer, research and development investments or substantially reducing the patent incentive for innovation.
- Recommend any alternative mechanisms deemed necessary to ensure that the balance between incentives to innovate and access to technology best reflect objectives of ensuring reasonable access to health care solutions, maximising economic growth and growing the Australian manufacturing industry.
- Recommend measures to raise awareness of these provisions and their purpose, including the specific challenges of raising awareness among small businesses and the healthcare sector.
A number of submissions to the Senate’s Community Affairs committee claimed that there were a range of deficiencies with the present scheme. In addition, IP Australia told the Senate’s Community Affairs committee when it was investigating these (and other matters) that, in the 100+ years our law has had such provision, there had been only 3 applications for the grant of a compulsory licence. The ALRC had also recommended that the scope of ‘reasonable requirements of the public’ be clarified (the recommendation to make the competition test a basis for licensing having been sort of implemented when s 133(2)(b) was inserted in 2006.
The Terms of Reference also note that Australia is a net importer of technology with, for example, only 1,178 (or 8%) of the 14,557 patents granted in 2010 being granted to Australian residents.
The TRIPS Agreement allows us to do something in this sphere. See art. 40 and art. 27.2 even goes so far as to allow us to exclude from patentability things necessary to protect ordre public “including to protect human … life or health”.
Of course, the multi-million dollar question in all of this is what that elastic word “reasonable” might mean?
Do also note paragraph 4 of art. 40, which gives a country that is concerned its nationals are being prejudiced by the exercise of such rights an “opportunity for consultations”. Of course, such a country might just move straight to the dispute resolution processes. I wonder how a more liberal use of compulsory licensing, or the threat of it, would play with those of our trading partners who consider compulsory licences of patents to be anathema?
According to the Productivity Commission’s website:
1 an issues paper will be released in August;
2 initial submissions will be due by 28 September;
3 there will be a draft report released in early December;
4 public hearings will be held in February 2013; and
5 the final report will be delivered to the government on 29 March 2013.
- According to the Press Release amongst other things: “Of concern to government is a perception that patents over genetic technologies, or a perceived lack of licences to use these patents in Australia, unreasonably restricts or delays patient access to medical advice based on the latest diagnostic tests. Other areas of sensitivity include climate change mitigation, food security and alternative energy technologies, and technical standards essential patents (for example, in telecommunication technologies).” ?
Gotye and Kimbra had that smash hit “Somebody I used to know“.
Prof. Tushnet gives extra points for the artwork. I wonder about that, does it go too far? I guess there is that dig at the artwork too …
While we’re having fun:
Walk off the Earth did this theatrical cover of Gotye/Kimbra.
Then, in the Key of Awesome really took the sledgehammer to it.
Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 41A.
(see: it was IP related)
The Government has announced the finalised terms of reference for the Australian Law Reform’s inquiry into copyright:
I refer to the ALRC for inquiry and report pursuant to subsection 20(1) of the Australian Law Reform Commission Act 1996 the matter of whether the exceptions and statutory licences in the Copyright Act 1968, are adequate and appropriate in the digital environment.
Amongst other things, the ALRC is to consider whether existing exceptions are appropriate and whether further exceptions should:
- recognise fair use of copyright material;
- allow transformative, innovative and collaborative use of copyright materials to create and deliver new products and services of public benefit; and
- allow appropriate access, use, interaction and production of copyright material online for social, private or domestic purposes.
As one might expect, the ALRC is directed not to duplicate work being undertaken by other inquiries and the like. It turns out that, amongst other things, these include
not duplicate work being undertaken on: unauthorised distribution of copyright materials using peer to peer networks; the scope of the safe harbour scheme for ISPs; a review of exceptions in relation to technological protection measures; and increased access to copyright works for persons with a print disability.
Anyone know what that work is?
The ALRC is required to deliver its report by 30 November 2013.
Terms of reference here.