The Minister has released ACIP’s report into what should be patentable subject matter under Australian law.
At the moment, s 18 defines a ‘patentable invention’ and the Dictionary in Sch. 1 defines and “invention” as:
“invention” means any manner of new manufacture the subject of letters patent and grant of privilege within section 6 of the Statute of Monopolies, and includes an alleged invention.
and, from NRDC (for example) :
Section 6 of the Statute of Monopolies provides that the declarations of invalidity contained in the preceding provisions of the Act “shall not extend to any letters patents and graunts of privilege . . . hereafter to be made of the sole working or makinge of any manner of new manufactures within this realme, to the true and first inventor and inventors of such manufactures, which others at the tyme of makinge such letters patents and graunts shall not use, soe as alsoe they be not contrary to the lawe or mischievous to the state by raisinge prices of comodities at home, or hurt of trade, or generallie inconvenient”
From the Key Points and recommendations:
We recommend changing the Patents Act 1990 to codify the principles of inherent patentability (as developed by the High Court in the NRDC case and in subsequent Australian court decisions). …
These reforms envisage amending the legislation by:
- replacing the words ‘is a patentable invention’ in subsections 18(1) and18(1A) with the words ‘is patentable’;
- replacing the words ‘if the invention, so far as claimed in any claim’ in subsections 18(1) and 18(1A) with the words ‘if it’;
- replacing the current words of paragraphs 18(1)(a) and 18(1A)(a) with the words ‘an artificially created state of affairs in the field of economic endeavour’;
- changing the definition of ‘invention’ in Schedule 1 to be ‘the subject matter of any claim’; and
- deleting the definition of ‘patentable invention’ in Schedule 1.
So far, so good. These proposals would keep the teleological approach adopted in NRDC that was (and is) so forward looking and which has served us so well. It looks like they would also do away with all the problems of the “threshold” requirement introduced by Phillips v Mirabella (the nature of the problem is laid out at paragraphs 19 to 27 of Bristol-Myers Squibb v Faulding).
Then, things start to get a bit hairy:
Because the principles of inherent patentability address only the economic goals of the patent system, we also recommend specific and general exclusions to address certain ethical concerns that may arise. The current specific exclusion preventing the patenting of human beings and biological processes for their generation should be retained. Instead of the general inconvenience proviso, a general exclusion would preclude the patenting of inventions the commercial exploitation of which would be wholly offensive to the ordinary reasonable and fully informed member of the Australian public. (my emphasis)
Now, I would be happy with the recommendation insofar as it gets rid of the “general inconvenient proviso” as no-one knows what it means, or is intended to mean. But to replace it with an exclusion of “something wholly offensive to the ordinary reasonable and fully informed member of the Australian public”? That will be “fun”.
In Bristol-Myers Squibb, Finkelstein J pointed out (especially at 140 to 142) that courts are not particularly happy hunting grounds for that type of inquiry; still less so, one might have thought, the Commissioner (whomever he or she might be). For example, in a different field, Lady Chatterley’s Lover was famously offensive, although apparently no more. Today, we have controversy over whether or not to fly some people at taxpayer’s expense to funerals (here vs here and here). Which side of that debate represents the ordinary reasonable and fully informed member …?
Meanwhile, the Senate’s Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee is waiting (until 25 February 2011) for your submissions on the Patent Amendment (Human Genes and Biological Materials) Bill 2010, the private Senators’ bill (introduced by Senators Coonan, Heffernan, Siewert and Xenophon) to amend the Patents Act 1990 to prevent the patenting of human genes and biological materials existing in nature.
ACIP’s press release.